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The purpose of this research is to examine whether a resource-based view can be used to explain the internationalization of SMEs in LDCs. LDCs are countries with the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, and the lowest human capital levels of all countries in the world (UNCTAD 2011). Hence, LDCs present unique challenging environments for SMEs. It is important to study factors influencing SME international exports in LDCs because notwithstanding the quantity of research on factors associated with the ability of firms to export goods abroad, there is still insufficient knowledge about the internationalization of SMEs in LDCs, particularly whether in such difficult environments, firm specific resources can be used to explain whether SME is an exporter or non-exporter.