Skip to main content
This commentary consolidates research carried out from 2011-2016 in the island Kingdom of Bahrain, which is a vibrant context of educational reform. It draws attention to the main themes shared by the publications and demonstrates how together they form a clear picture of the development of educational reform in Bahrain and current outcomes. In addition, it demonstrates how these publications have contributed to related knowledge and scholarship, and delineates how, through reflecting on these publications, the researcher advanced her research skills and acquired new perspectives.
Four themes are discussed. The first theme is crosscutting, as it relates to research opportunities and limitations with respect to research in education in Bahrain. Such opportunities and limitations impact the investigation of educational practices such as the teaching and development of 21st Century skills (e.g. higher-order thinking skills and deep learning) creating significant challenges, in particular to school improvement efforts. These challenges are the focus of the second theme and link to the third theme, which centers on the main potential factors behind them. Specifically, Theme 3 concentrates on the predominance of a conservative culture of teaching and learning in the educational institutions of the Kingdom. Finally, the fourth theme highlights pedagogical strategies related to student-driven learning, which may mitigate the existing challenges and the factors contributing to them.
The discussion of the themes is followed with reflections on what the researcher envisions as the possible way forward in educational reform in Bahrain, which entails an emphasis on an interdisciplinary, problem-oriented approach to learning. Further reflections examine the experiences of being a researcher in a vibrant context of educational reform such as Bahrain's and what they involve in terms of opportunities and challenges. The final sections highlight how the researcher's publications have contributed to the scholarly literature and discusses some methodological considerations and possible future research directions.
I am an Academic Consultant at the Directorate of Higher Education of the Education & Training Quality Authority of Bahrain. Before this, I was working as an Assistant Professor of Educational Psychology and Leadership at the Bahrain Teachers' College of the University of Bahrain, where I was heavily involved in teacher preparation and the professional development of school leaders.
Prior to that, I was based in Saudi Arabia, wher I held the post of Vice Dean of Academic Affairs at Mohammad Almana College of Health Sciences & Training Programmes, after having worked as an Assistant Professor of Early Childhood Education at Effat University.
I have been in education for almost 27 years and am an active researcher, with publications in international peer-reviewed journals. I am also the founder and managing editor of my own international scientific journal: Journal of Teaching & Teacher Education.
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2020). Paulo Freire's critical and dialogic pedagogy and its implications for the Bahraini educational context. Educational Philosophy and Theory, available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2020.1716731 [A journal published by Taylor & Francis].
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2016). Teachers' experiences with school improvement projects: the case of Bahraini public schools. Cogent Education, Volume 3, Issue 1. DOI: 10.1080/2331186X.2016.1229898, available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2016.1229898 and published by Taylor & Francis [ISSN: 2331-186X].
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2016). Cultural factors impacting student motivation at a health sciences college in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Cogent Education, 3(1), available online at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/2331186X.2016.1153214 and published by Taylor & Francis [ISSN: 2311-186x].
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2015). The lived-through experience of the senior teacher: A closer look at a middle management and leadership position in Bahraini public schools. Cogent Education, 2(1), available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2015.1123084 and published by Taylor & Francis [ISSN: 2331-186X].
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2014). In-service teachers' attitudes towards technology integration in the Bahraini classroom. World Journal of Educational Technology.Volume 16, Issue 1. 60-74. [ISSN 1309-1506 (Print), ISSN: 1309-0348 (Online)]
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2014). Strategies for Effective Faculty Involvement in Online Activities Aimed at Promoting Critical Thinking and Deep Learning. Education and Information Technologies, published by Springer and available online at: DOI: 10.1007/s10639-014-9359-z [ISSN 1360-2357 (Print), 1573-7608 (Online)]
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2013). The effectiveness of a university-based professional development program in developing Bahraini school leaders' management and leadership competencies of implementing effective school-wide professional development and ICT integration. Professional Development in Education. DOI:10.1080/19415257.2012.759127 [ISSN 1941-5257 (Print), 1941-5265 (Online)]
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2013). Challenges facing school leadership in promoting ICT integration in instruction in the public schools of Bahrain. Education and Information Technologies. DOI:10.1007/s10639-013-9283-7 [ISSN 1360-2357 (Print), 1573-7608 (Online)]
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2012). Problem-Based Learning in the Educational Psychology Classroom: Bahraini Teacher Candidates' Experience. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Volume 24, Issue 2. 134-143. [ISSN 1812-9129 (Print)]
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2012). Teacher Candidates' Perceptions on Harsh Discipline and the Future of Bahraini Schools. Journal of the International Society for Teacher Education. Volume 16, Issue 2. 34-44. [ISSN 1029-5968 (Online)]
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2012). Killing the Job Satisfaction in Them: Leadership Culture and Female College Employees in Family-Owned Educational Institutions in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. Volume 2, Issue 3. 154-164. [ISSN 2220-8488 (Print), 2221-0989 (Online)]
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2012). Gender Differences or Not? Harsh Discipline in Childhood and Its Impact on Bahraini Teachers' Candidates Perceptions and Classroom Practices. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. Volume 2, Issue 1. 233-244. [ISSN 2220-8488 (Print), 2221-0989 (Online)]
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2011). Role-Playing in the classroom: Reactions and Gender Differences of Students from a Conservative Culture. Journal of Middle East Women's Studies-Yale University. Volume 7, Issue 2. 89-102. [E-ISSN 1558-9579, Print ISSN 1552-5864]
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2018). Bahrain. E-Learning in the Middle East and North Africa (Edited by Alan Weber & Sihem Hamlaoui). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG.
· Abdul Razzak, N. & Al-Baker, K. (2015). Leading and Managing Action Research for School Improvement: The Case of Bahraini Schools. Private and Public Schools: International Perspectives, Management and Educational Efficiency (Edited by Gina Abbott). New York, USA: Nova Science Publishers. (ISBN 9781634823654).
· Abdul Razzak N. (2019) Leadership on Information Technology in Education. In: Tatnall A. (eds) Encyclopedia of Education and Information Technologies. Springer, Cham (https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60013-0)
· Abdul Razzak, N. & Al-Mansoori, W. (2018, April). Giving Back: Alumni as Assets for Generating Philanthropic Support for Higher Education in Bahrain. Paper presented at the Gulf Comparative Education Society's Eighth Biannual Symposium on Public, Private, and Philanthropy: Exploring the Impact of New Actors on Education in the GCC(April 7-9, 2018), Hilton Garden Inn Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. United Arab Emirates: Sheikh Saud Bin Saqr Al Qasimi Foundation for Policy Research (pp. 13-25).
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2017). E-Learning and National Innovation in Bahrain: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Developments. Paper presented at theE-Learnit 2017 Conference: e-Learning Excellence in Higher Education (April 2-3, 2017), Sofitel Hotel, Sakhir-Bahrain. Accessible on: http://elearnitbahrain.com/proceedings_2/eLearning%20and%20National%20Innovation%20in%20Bahrain%20Opportunities,%20Challenges%20%20Future%20Developments_Nina.pdf
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2015). An Evaluation of an Integrated E-Portfolio Model: The Case of Bahrain Teachers' College. Paper presented at The 5th International E-Learning Conference: Cognitively Informed Technology (October 18-20, 2015), Crowne Plaza Hotel, Manama-Bahrain. Published in the 2015 IEEE proceedings (DOI 10.1109/ECONF.2015.45).
· Abdul Razzak, N. & Al-Baker, K. (2015). An overview of the chapter "Leading and Managing Action Research for School Improvement: The Case of Bahraini Schools. Paper presented at the International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts (SGEM 2015) (August 24-31, 2015), Congress Center Flamingo Grand, Albena- Bulgaria (pp.589-596).
· Abdul Razzak, N. (2012, November). The missing link: Teachers' professional development and implementation in the Bahraini classroom. Paper presented at the Gulf Comparative Education Society's Third Annual Symposium on Global Innovation, Local Transformation: Trends and Reactions (March 24-25, 2012), Crowne Plaza Hotel, Manama-Bahrain. United Arab Emirates: Sheikh Saud Bin Saqr Al Qasimi Foundation for Policy Research.