Search our site
Search our site

From Bench to Bedside

  • Module code: PY7940
  • Year: 2018/9
  • Level: 7
  • Credits: 30
  • Pre-requisites: None
  • Co-requisites: None

Summary

This module develops the knowledge gained during the induction period of Application of Science to Patient Care (PY7960) to include advanced pharmaceutical concepts such as nanotechnology and their application to patient care. You will study the regulatory framework that underpins drug development from discovery of active substance through clinical trials, drug development, manufacture and licensing. You will acquire hands-on practical skills in preparation and dispensing pharmaceuticals in an aseptic environment. The module also examines the paradigm shift occurring in the pharmaceutical industry; the move from simple small molecule actives to macromolecules (such as proteins and DNA) and nanotechnology constructs (such as polymer conjugates, and viral and non-viral vectors). It integrates advanced clinical and scientific concepts using complex patient cases as a platform of analysis to train you how to provide evidence based recommendations. Emphasis is placed on the development of problem-solving skills and independent learning.

Aims

  • To consider the current and changing pharmaceutical and clinical landscapes and how change will impact on patient care and evidence-based practice
  • To examine the role of more complex formulations and biopharmaceuticals in medicine selection for the prevention and treatment of advanced diseases in and general and special populations to individualise patient care
  • To promote understanding and practical expertise in techniques of aseptic and extemporaneous dispensing

Learning outcomes

On successful completion of the module, students will be able to:

  • Relate the selection of therapy and delivery system to treatment guidelines, evidence, drug properties, and the patient.
  • Critically appraise the literature to provide appropriate pharmaceutical and clinical pharmacy recommendations
  • Summarise key considerations in the use of medicines in paediatrics, the elderly and patients with compromised renal/hepatic function.
  • Evaluate and critique the role of novel drug delivery systems and various biopharmaceutical therapies in patient care and the strategies for formulating their delivery systems.
  • Apply specialised practical skills in laboratories specially designed for dispensing and manipulating sterile dosage forms

Curriculum content

  • Pain management with a focus on opioid conversion calculations, side effect management and novel methods of opioid delivery (eg. fentanyl formulations)
  • Drug targeting, discrimination between active, passive, first and second order targeting, and the various types of experimental systems
  • The role of drug targeting (as described above) in oncology. (Biotechnological production, downstream processing, formulation, excipients, storage, stability, quality control and product handling
  • The role of the above described biotechnology derived products in the treatment of individualized cancer care. Solid dispersions; uses, characterization of physical form and stability and role of stability indicating assay methods to support ambulatory therapy using elastomeric devices.
  • Eye health with a focus on ophthalmic drug delivery, dosage forms and novel mechanisms of action.
  • The pharmaceutical care (including review of novel formulations) of special populations such as pediatrics, geriatrics and patients with compromised kidney function
  • Infectious diseases with a focus on antimicrobial resistance.
  • Personalised therapy with a focus on pharmacogenetics and cancer biomarkers
  • Information retrieval, provision and appraisal  to support evidence based medicine
  • Clinical Governance Mobile Health/Telehealth as novel systems of care for chronic diseases
  • Elements of the drug development process from concept to patient.
  • The relationship between quality assurance, good manufacturing practice and quality control in certifying the quality of pharmaceuticals including those derived from biological sources. Requirements for qualified personnel, appropriate premises, equipment, processes and documentation in quality control of pharmaceuticals, including selection, design and validation of analytical methods
  • Extemporaneous dispensing including by aseptic technique

Teaching and learning strategy

Through a variety of group and seminar work, practical and laboratory sessions, students are given the opportunity to develop and enhance individual interests and personal and key skills. Student centred learning and problem based learning are incorporated through the use of a critical appraisal assignment studies and group work to address complicated patient scenarios that reflect current practice. These activities support not only learning and understanding new knowledge but develop the academic skills and professional attributes that are necessary to meet the GPhC's outcomes standards, and then utilise them in practice.

This module will be delivered via lectures, workshops and practicals. The students will be provided with reading material to help them prepare for each session. The workshops will provide the students with complex patient case scenarios where they have to integrate and apply the knowledge accrued from prior reading, lectures and practicals.

Breakdown of Teaching and Learning Hours

Definitive UNISTATS Category Indicative Description Hours
Scheduled learning and teaching Lectures, workshops, practicals 100
Guided independent study Self-directed and guided independent learning 200
Total (number of credits x 10) 300

Assessment strategy

The assessment in this module is underpinned by the GPhC's outcome standards and the necessity for students to demonstrate that they can meet these standards.

To support the student in meeting these standards diagnostic and formative assessment is used to support learning in addition to the teaching and learning. There will be elements related to this module in the diagnostic testing in induction to assess baseline levels of knowledge and ability in relation to the concepts being taught in this module. The tests cover topics like pharmaceutical calculations, pharmacokinetics and underpinning pharmaceutical chemistry. Feedback will be given to students, extra reading material outlined, and signposting to sources of help as appropriate.

To achieve the learning outcomes a range of assessment methods are used to enable students to demonstrate their acquisition of advanced knowledge and skills such as critical appraisal, problem solving and analysis and apply them in practical situations. There are a series of formative workshops with feedback to support this. The in module assessment is not only summative but will give students and tutors an indication of students' progress and level of performance and along with feedback, if required, support can be provided. Students have the opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and critical appraisal abilities in a critical appraisal assignment.

OSPAP students are required to pass a synoptic OSCE style assessment and a synoptic calculations test before they can be awarded their accredited diploma. These are to assure that the graduating student is able to demonstrate that they have the appropriate skills, knowledge, understanding and attributes to become a future pharmacist. Learning in this module feeds forward into these synoptic assessments. In particular critical appraisal and problem solving skills are assessed both formatively in workshops and summatively in the in module assessment through the use of SBA and EMQ style questions, feeding forward into the synoptic OSCE assessment.

Mapping of Learning Outcomes to Assessment Strategy (Indicative)

Learning Outcome Assessment Strategy
Relate the selection of therapy and delivery system to treatment guidelines, evidence, drug properties, and the patient. Formative: Workshops Critical appraisal assignment In module assessment End of module exam
Critically appraise the literature to provide appropriate pharmaceutical and clinical pharmacy recommendations. Formative: Workshops Oral presentation - formative Critical appraisal assignment, In module assessment End of module exam
Summarise key considerations in the use of medicines in paediatrics, the elderly and patients with compromised renal/hepatic function. Formative: Workshops In module assessment End of module exam Feeds forward to synoptic OSCE
Evaluate and critique the role of novel drug delivery systems and various biopharmaceutical therapies in patient care and the strategies for formulating their delivery systems. Formative: Workshops Critical appraisal assignment In module assessment
Apply specialised practical skills in laboratories specially designed for dispensing and manipulating sterile dosage forms. Formative: Practical Feeds forward to synoptic OSCE

Elements of Assessment

Description of Assessment Definitive UNISTATS Categories Percentage
Written exam End of module exam 60%
Written exam In module assessment 20%
Coursework Critical appraisal assignment 20%
Total (to equal 100%) 100%

Achieving a pass

It is a requirement that the elements of assessment are passed separately in order to achieve an overall pass for the module.

Bibliography recommended reading

  • Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, Walker and Whittlesea, 5th Edition. Churchill Livingstone, 2012. ISBN 9780702042935
  • Pathology and Therapeutics for Pharmacists: A Basis for Clinical Practice. Green and Harris, 3rd Edition. Pharmaceutical Press, 2008. ISBN 978 0 85369 686 5
  • An Introduction to Clinical Pharmaceutics. A.T Florence. Pharmaceutical Press, 2010. ISBN 978 0 85369 691 9
  • Drugs in Use; Clinical case studies for pharmacists, Dodds, 5th Edition. Pharmaceutical Press, 2013. ISBN 978 0 85711 091 6
  • The Johns Hopkins Antibiotic Guide-Diagnosis and treatment of Infectious Diseases-Bartlett, Auwaerter and Pham. Available online.
  • British National Formulary, Current edition. Pharmaceutical Press
  • British National Formulary for Children, Current edition. Pharmaceutical Press
  • Koda-Kimble and Young's Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs, Alldredge et al, 10th Edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2012. ISBN 978 1 60913 713 7
  • Medicines in the Elderly, Armour and Cairns. Pharmaceutical Press, 2002. ISBN 978 0 85369 446 3
  • Oxford textbook of palliative medicine, Doyle et al, 4th Edition. Oxford University Press, 4th Edition. ISBN 9780198570295
  • The Renal Drug Handbook, Ashley and Currie, 3rd Edition. Radcliffe Medical Press 2008. ISBN 978181846192892
  • Cancer and its Management. Tobias J and Hochhauser D, 6th Edition. Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. ISBN 978-1-4051-7015-4
  • Antibiotics Simplified-Gallagher and MacDougall, 2nd Edition. Jones and Bartlett Learning, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4496-1495-1
  • Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine. Longmore, Wilkinson, Baldwin and Wallin, 9th Edition. Oxford University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-0-19-960962-8

Find a course

Course finder

>
Undergraduate study
Site menu