Ms Khadijah Manasseh

Research project: Towards an Understanding of Race and Sentencing


This thesis examines the correlation between race and sentencing in the legal systems of England and Wales, focusing on the potential differences in legal consequences for black and white offenders. Utilising a comparative narrative analysis, the research delves into the underlying factors of historical racism, prejudice in the criminal justice system, and the roles of the jury, judiciary, and Crown Prosecution Service.

The investigation conducts a thorough analysis of legal cases, juxtaposing black and white offenders to pinpoint potential discrepancies in sentencing that racialise individual cases. Through the evaluation of case law, court documents, and sentencing guidelines, the research demonstrates the degree to which race might impact sentencing results. Furthermore, the study scrutinises pertinent literature and statistical information to situate the findings within the broader socio-historical context of race relations in England and Wales.

This investigation contributes to the ongoing conversation on racial disparities in the criminal justice system, offering significant insights into the possible channels through which racial bias may emerge during the sentencing process. The conclusions may act as a foundation for policy suggestions aimed at tackling these discrepancies and fostering a fairer and more just legal system for all individuals, irrespective of their race.

  • Research degree: PhD
  • Title of project: Towards an Understanding of Race and Sentencing
  • Research supervisor: Dr Kevin Barker
  • Other research supervisor: Dr Philip Harris


Currently, I am a doctoral researcher in the department of Law.

My primary research is based on the disproportionality of sentencing of Black people in England and Wales, and racial disparities. The central element of my research is based on critical race theory combined with comparative narrative analysis. I am also interested and invested in the normalisation of racism in mainstream society.

I have also been extensively involved in Policy Work at the Government level in relation to Criminal Justice, Youth Services, Social Work and Education over a forty year period. 

Areas of research interest

  • Sentencing
  • Critical Race Theory
  • Social Justice
  • Human Rights
  • Criminal Justice


  • LLM Human Rights
  • MA Christian Theology
  • PGD Philosophy of Religion and Ethics
  • Graduate Diploma in Law
  • BA Broadcast Journalism
  • BA Islamic Studies
  • Graduate Diploma in Teaching with QTLS