Professor Stephen Tong


I obtained my PhD and MPhil in Criminology at the Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge. I held a variety roles throughout my career from Lecturer through to Professor at Canterbury Christ Church University (2002-2022) before Joining Kingston University as the Head of School for Law, Social & Behavioural Sciences in 2022.I have held a variety of academic roles  including leading research projects, directing undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD courses, founding and leading a research centre, external examination roles ranging from undergraduate degrees through to PhD (at 15 different universities) and strategic research leadership. My interest in designing academic courses has been focused on developing curriculum that have academic rigour, transferable skills and relevance to professions. My research interests focus on a wide range of policing issues with a particular interest in police training and education, miscarriages of justice, technological development in policing, police professionalisation, criminal investigation and internatonal policing.

Academic responsibilities

Head of School


  • PhD
  • MPhil

Teaching and learning

I am currently Head of School for Law, Social & Behavourial Sciences and teach no modules. I have designed courses in policing and criminology and delivered teaching for policing, miscarriages of justice, criminal investigation and research methods. 



Brunger, M, Martin, D & Tong, S (eds) (2016) Introduction to Policing Research: Taking Lessons from Practice, London: Routledge.

Caless, B & Tong S (2015) Leading Policing in Europe: An Empirical Study of Police Leadership, Bristol: Policy Press.

Tong. S, Bryant. R & Hovarth. M (2009) Understanding Criminal Investigation, Chichester:  Wiley & Sons Publication.



Tong. S & Hallenberg, K (2018) ‘Education and the police professionalisation agenda: a perspective from England & Wales' in C. Rogers & B. Frevel (eds) Higher Police Education – An International Perspective, Springer International.

Bryant, R, Cockcroft, T, Tong, S & Wood, D (2013) ‘Police Training and Education: Past, present and future', in Brown, J (ed) The Future of Policing: Papers prepared for the Stevens Independent Commission into the Future of Policing in England and Wales, London, Routledge.


Silvestri, M & Tong. S (2020) ‘Women Police Leaders in Europe: A Tale of Prejudice and Patronage', European Journal of Criminology.

Green. T and Tong. S (2019) 'Police Learning in the Context of Change and Diversity, Policing: a Journal of Policy and Practice. Editorial.

Kaasik. J & Tong. S (2019) The Schengen Evaluation Mechanism: Exploring the Views of Experts in the Field of Police Cooperation, European Law Enforcement Research Bulletin, Winter 2018/2019.

Tong. S & O'Neill, M (2019) ‘Advance Detective training: specialist degrees in early attempts to professionalise investigation' in Policing: A Journal for Policy and Practice

Heaton. R, Bryant. R & Tong. S (2018) ‘Operational Risk, Omissions and Liability in Policing', The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles.

Tong, S (2017) Professionalising policing: seeking viable and sustainable approaches to police education and learning, CEPOL Science Bulletin.

Wood. D, Cockcroft. T, Tong. S & Bryant. R (2017) ‘The importance of context and cognitive agency in developing police knowledge: going beyond the police science discourse' The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles.

Heaton. R & Tong, S (2016) ‘Evidence-Based Policing: From Effectiveness to Cost-Effectiveness' in Policing: A Journal for Policy and Practice, Volume 10   Issue 1   March 2016, pp. 60-70

Caless, B & Tong, S (2015) ‘Strategic Police Leadership across Europe: Empirical Study', European Police Science and Research Bulletin, ISSUE 12 — SUMMER 2015, pp. 13-17

Silvestri, M, Tong, S & Brown, J (2013) Gender and police leadership: time for a paradigm shift?, International Journal of Police Science and Management 15, 1 61-72

Alys, L, Massey, K & Tong. S (2013) ‘Investigative Decision Making: Missing people and sexual offences, crossroads to an uncertain future', Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 140-154.

Caless, B & Tong, S (2013) ‘An appropriate space": chief officers and police accountability', Police Practice & Research, Volume 14 Issue 1, pp. 4-16.

Tong, S & Wood, D (2011) Graduate Police Officers: releasing the potential for pre-employment university programmes for aspiring police officers, The Police Journal, Volume 84, Number 1, 69-75.

Horvath, M. A. H, Tong, S & Williams, E (2011) ‘'Critical issues in rape investigation: a UK perspective' in Journal of Criminal Justice Research, Vol 1 Number 2.

Wood, D & Tong, S (2009) The future of initial police training: a university perspective, International Journal of Police Science and Management, Vol. 11, No. 3, September 2009, pp. 294-305. ISSN: 1478-1603.

Tong, S & Bowling, B (2006) ‘Art, Craft and Science of Detective Work', Police Journal, Volume 79, No 4, pp. 323-329.


Hadfield. A, Bullock. K, Tong. S, Mallett. E, Keningale. P and Wellings. F (2022) ‘Border Trouble: Cooperation between UK and European Police, Judiciary, Port and Border Authorities in the Post-Brexit Age', Spring 2022, University of Surrey.

Hadfield. A, Tong. S & Swallow. P (2018) ‘Kent and Medway: Delivering a Brexit Border: Policing, Security, Freight and Customs', Report

Leadership and management

Head of School Law, Social & Behaviorial Sciences