Professor Stephen Tong

About

I am a Professor in Policing & Criminal Justice and Head of the School for Law, Social & Behavioral Sciences. I obtained my PhD and MPhil in Criminology at the Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge. I held various roles throughout my career, from Lecturer to Professor at Canterbury Christ Church University (2002-2022) before Joining Kingston University in 2022. I have held various academic roles, including leading research projects, directing undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD courses, founding and leading a research centre, external examination roles ranging from undergraduate to PhD (at 18 different universities) and strategic research leadership. My interest in designing academic courses focused on developing a curriculum with academic rigour, transferable skills and relevance to professions. My research interests focus on a wide range of policing issues, with a particular interest in police training/education, police whistle-blowing and complaints, miscarriages of justice, technological development in policing, police professionalisation, criminal investigation and international policing. 

Academic responsibilities

Head of School

Qualifications

  • PhD
  • MPhil
  • BA (Hons)

Teaching and learning

I am currently Head of School for Law, Social & Behavioural Sciences and teach no modules. I have designed courses in policing and criminology and delivered teaching in policing, miscarriages of justice, criminal investigation and research methods. 

Research

My research interests focus on a wide range of policing issues with a particular interest in police training and education, miscarriages of justice, technological development in policing, police professionalisation, criminal investigation and international policing. 

Publications

Number of items: 54.

Article

Shellaker, Matthew, Tong, Stephen and Swallow, Paul (2023) UK-EU law enforcement cooperation post-Brexit : a UK law enforcement practitioner perspective. Criminology & Criminal Justice, ISSN (print) 1748-8958 (Epub Ahead of Print)

Silvestri, Marisa and Tong, Stephen (2022) Women police leaders in Europe : a tale of prejudice and patronage. European Journal of Criminology, 19(5), pp. 871-890. ISSN (print) 1477-3708

Heaton, Robert and Tong, Stephen (2022) More lesson learning, less risk aversion in England and Wales? Prospects for the police (conduct) regulations 2020. The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles, 0032258X2211075. ISSN (print) 0032-258X (Epub Ahead of Print)

Tong, Stephen and Green, Tracey (2020) Police learning in the context of change and diversity. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 14(2), pp. 295-299. ISSN (print) 1752-4512

Heaton, Robert, Bryant, Robin and Tong, Stephen (2019) Operational risk, omissions and liability in policing. The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles, 92(2), pp. 150-166. ISSN (print) 0032-258X

Kaasik, Joosep and Tong, Stephen (2019) The Schengen evaluation mechanism : exploring the views of experts in the field of police cooperation. European Law Enforcement Research Bulletin, 18, pp. 53-69.

Wood, Dominic, Cockcroft, Tom, Tong, Stephen and Bryant, Robin (2018) The importance of context and cognitive agency in developing police knowledge. The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles, 91(2), pp. 173-187. ISSN (print) 0032-258X

Heaton, Robert and Tong, Stephen (2016) Evidence-based policing : from effectiveness to cost-effectiveness. Policing, 10(1), pp. 60-70. ISSN (print) 1752-4512

Caless, Brian and Tong, Stephen (2015) Leading policing in Europe : an empirical study of police leadership. European Police Science and Research Bulletin, 12, pp. 13-17. ISSN (print) 2443-7883

Alys, L., Massey, K. and Tong, Stephen (2013) Investigative decision making : missing people and sexual offences, crossroads to an uncertain future. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 10(2), pp. 140-154. ISSN (print) 1544-4759

Silvestri, Marisa, Tong, Steve and Brown, Jennfier (2013) Gender and police leadership : time for a paradigm shift? International Journal of Police Science and Management, 15(1), pp. 61-73. ISSN (print) 1461-3557

Caless, Bryn and Tong, Stephen (2013) ‘An appropriate space’ : chief officers and police accountability. Police Practice and Research, 14(1), pp. 4-16. ISSN (print) 1561-4263

Tong, Stephen and Wood, Dominic (2011) Graduate police officers : releasing the potential for pre-employment university programmes for aspiring officers. The Police Journal, 84(1), pp. 69-74. ISSN (print) 0032-258X

Horvath, M., Tong, Stephen and Williams, E. (2011) Critical issues in rape investigation : an overview of reform in England and Wales. The Journal of Criminal Justice Research, 1(2), pp. 1-18. ISSN (print) 2160-2816

Wood, D.A. and Tong, Stephen (2009) The future of initial police training : a university perspective. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 11(3), pp. 294-305. ISSN (print) 1461-3557

Tong, Stephen and Bowling, Ben (2006) Art, craft and science of detective work. The Police Journal, 79(4), pp. 323-329. ISSN (print) 0032-258X

Book

Tong, Stephen , Brunger, Mark and Martin, Denise, eds. (2016) Introduction to policing research : taking lessons from practice. Abingdon, U.K. : Routledge. 246p. ISBN 9780415750400

Tong, Stephen, Graça, Sofia, Lawton-Barrett, Kevin, O'Neill, Martin, Underwood, Robert and Wood, Dominic (2015) Blackstone's handbook for policing students 2016. Oxford, U.K. : Oxford University Press. 656p. ISBN 9780198743316

Tong, Stephen and Caless, Bryn (2015) Leading policing in Europe : an empirical study of police leadership. Bristol, U.K. : Policy Press and Bristol University Press. ISBN 9781447315728

Tong, Stephen, Bryant, Robin and Horvath, Miranda (2009) Understanding criminal investigation. Chichester, U.K. : Wiley. 294p. (Wiley Series in the Psychology of Crime, Policing and Law) ISBN 9780470727256

Book Section

Tong, Stephen and Hallenberg, Katja M. (2018) Education and the police professionalisation agenda : a perspective from England & Wales. In: Rogers, Colin and Frevel, Bernhard, (eds.) Higher education and police : an international perspective. Cham, Switzerland : Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 17-34. ISBN 9783319644080

Martin, Denise and Tong, Stephen (2015) Conclusion : challenges and changes in policing research. In: Brunger, Mark , Tong, Stephen and Martin, Denise, (eds.) Introduction to policing research : taking lessons from practice. Abingdon, U.K. : Routledge. pp. 217-224. ISBN 9781138013292

Brunger, Mark, Caless, Bryn, Tong, Stephen and Gilbert, Paul (2015) From the briefing room to the class room : the pedagogical value of researching police elites. In: Brunger, Mark , Tong, Stephen and Martin, Denise, (eds.) Introduction to policing research : taking lessons from practice. London, U.K. : Routledge. pp. 137-148. ISBN 9781138013292

Brunger, Mark, Martin, Denise and Tong, Stephen (2015) Introduction to policing research. In: Brunger, Mark , Tong, Stephen and Martin, Denise, (eds.) Introduction to policing research : taking lessons from practice. Abingdon, U.K. : Routledge. pp. 1-6. ISBN 9781138013292

Hallenberg, Katja, O'Neill, Martin and Tong, Stephen (2015) Watching the detectives : researching investigative practice. In: Brunger, Mark , Tong, Stephen and Martin, Denise, (eds.) Introduction to policing research : taking lessons from practice. Abingdon, U.K. : Routledge. pp. 101-118. ISBN 9781138013292

Bryant, Robin, Cockcroft, Tom, Tong, Stephen and Wood, Dominic (2014) Police training and education : past, present and future. In: Brown, Jennifer M., (ed.) The future of policing. Abingdon, U.K. : Routledge. pp. 383-397. ISBN 9780415821629

Conference or Workshop Item

Swallow, Paul and Tong, Stephen (2022) The impact of Brexit on European police cooperation for British policing agencies. In: 22nd Annual Conference Of The European Society Of Criminology; 21-24 Sep 2022, Malaga, Spain. (Unpublished)

Tong, Stephen and Clayman, Steve (2022) Direct entry detective training : challenges and opportunities. In: CCPR annual conference: time for change? Reflections on the strategic review of policing in England and Wales; 13-14 Sep 2022, Canterbury, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Tong, Steve, Marshall, Ivor, Hamilton, David and Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik (2017) Police and higher education : prospects and challenges II workshop. In: Scottish Institute for Policing Research (SIPR) Annual Conference - Policing and Professionalisation : opportunities and challenges; 14 Dec 2017, Edinburgh, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Tong, S. (2017) Sink or swim : a case study of detective training. In: MSc Sociology and Criminology Annual Conference; 24 - 25 Nov 2017, Guildford, U.K..

Tong, Stephen (2017) Professionalizing criminal investigation : an examination of early attempts to professionalize detectives in the United Kingdom. In: 2017 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting; 21-23 Mar 2017, Kansas City, U.S.A.. (Unpublished)

Tong, Stephen (2016) Professionalising policing : seeking viable and sustainable approaches to police education and learning. In: CEPOL 2016 Research and Science Conference : Global trends in law enforcement training and education; 5-7 Oct 2016, National University of Public Service, Budapest, Hungary.

Tong, S. (2016) Professionalising policing : challenges in the role of education. In: British Society of Criminology; 06 - 08 Jul 2016, Nottingham, U.K..

Tong, S. (2016) Police reform workshop : professionalisation through education. In: European Police Research Institutes Collaboration (EPiC) Annual Conference; 30 Jun - 01 Jul 2016, Cardiff, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Tong, S. and Silvestri, M. (2015) Women and police leadership : a European insight. In: European Society of Criminology Conference; 02 - 05 Sep 2015, Porto, Portugal.

Tong, S. (2014) Police education in England and Wales : a changing landscape. In: ProPEL Conference of Professional Practice, Education and Learning; 24 - 27 Jun 2014, Stirling, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Brunger, M. and Tong, S. (2012) Policing research in an age of austerity. In: British Society of Criminology Conference; Portsmouth, U.K., 04 - 06 Jul 2012. (Unpublished)

Massey, K. and Tong, S. (2012) Criminal investigation and higher education : a crossroads to an uncertain future. In: Investigating homicide : theory, research & practice; 31 Jan 2012, Huddersfield, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Tong, S. (2011) The science of criminal investigation. In: Netherlands Police Academy, Scientific Research and Criminal Investigation Conference; Nov 2011, Netherlands. (Unpublished)

Tong, S., Murphy, R. and Underwood, R. (2011) Criminal investigation and higher education : a crossroads to an uncertain future. In: The Higher Education Forum for Learning and Development in Policing Conference; 06 - 07 Sep 2011, Northampton, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Tong, S. (2011) Police research and interviewing police elites. In: The Higher Education Forum for Learning and Development in Policing Conference; 06 - 07 Sep 2011, Northampton, U.K..

Poyser, S. and Tong, S. (2011) Skills and abilities in crime investigation : the investigative journalist versus the detective. In: British Society of Criminology Conference; Newcastle-upon-Tyne, U.K., 03 - 06 Jul 2012. (Unpublished)

Caless, B. and Tong, S. (2011) Police leadership : an historical account of the development of police leaders. In: Policing Through the Ages Conference; 19 Mar 2011, Southampton, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Tong, S. (2010) Art, craft & science : contemporary detective practice. In: British Society of Criminology Conference; 11 - 14 Jul 2010, Leicester, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Tong, S. (2010) Graduate Police Officers : releasing the potential for pre-employment university programmes for aspiring police officers. In: British Society of Criminology Conference; 11 - 14 Jul 2010, Leicester, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Tong, S. (2010) The more serious the offence, the more powerful the effect? An evaluation of victim-offender mediation in a prison setting. In: 6th conference of the European Forum for Restorative Justice, Doing Restorative Justice in Europe. Established Practices and Innovative Programmes; 17 - 19 Jun 2010, Bilbao, Spain. (Unpublished)

Tong, S. (2008) In need of professionalisation : the case for pre-employment training and education for police officers in the UK. In: British Criminology Conference : Criminological Futures: Controversies, Developments and Debates; Jul 2008, Huddersfield, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Tong, S. (2008) Confessions of a back seat detective : an ethnography of detective training and practice. In: International Conference : Justice and Policing in Diverse Societies; 09 - 12 Jun 2008, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Tong, S. (2008) Developments in initial police training : a university perspective. In: 15th Annual International Police Executive Symposium; 12 - 16 May 2008, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.. (Unpublished)

Phipps, J., Tong, S. and Wood, D. (2007) Initial police training : challenges and developments in the UK. In: 14th Annual Meeting of the International Police Executive Symposium; 08 - 12 Apr 2007, Dubai. (Unpublished)

Tong, S. (2002) Investigating effectiveness : competing ideologies and police performance management. In: British Society of Criminology Conference; 17 - 20 Jul 2002, Keele, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Tong, S. (2000) Watching the detectives. In: American Society of Criminology Conference; 17 Nov 2000, San Francisco, U.S.. (Unpublished)

Monograph

Hadfield, Amelia, Bullock, Karen, Tong, Stephen, Mallett, Ellis, Keningale, Paige and Wellings, Fennel (2022) Border trouble? Cooperation between UK and European police, judicial, port and border authorities in the post-Brexit age. (Discussion Paper) Guildford, U.K. : Centre for Britain and Europe (CBE), University of Surrey. 22 p.

Hadfield, Amelia, Tong, Stephen and Swallow, Paul (2018) Kent and Medway: delivering a brexit border: policing, security, freight and customs. (Project Report) Canterbury, U.K. : Centre for European Studies, Canterbury Christ Church University. 78 p.

This list was generated on Mon Apr 22 06:30:25 2024 BST.

Business, knowledge transfer and international

  • Tong. S (2018) ‘Police Leadership in Europe' CEPOL Joint Masters Programme, Schiphol Netherlands 12th December 2018
  • Tong, S (2017) ‘Art, Craft and Science of Policing', Bridgewater State University, USA
  • Tong, S (2017) ‘Conducting research into European Policing' German Police University, Munster, Germany, Thursday 9th March 2017
  • Tong. S (2016) ‘The History of Criminal Investigation', Norwegian Police University College, Oslo, January 2016

Professional practice, knowledge exchange and impact

Research impact concerns the improvement of detective training, workplace learning and reduce attrition and contribution to the development of new pathways.

  • Tong. S & O'Neill. M (2021) ‘Final feedback:- Responding to workforce transformation: Detective recruitment and training Recruitment', NPCC, Retention and Wellbeing of Investigator's working group 21st January 2021, Virtual Presentation.
  • Tong. S & O'Neill. M (2021) ‘Final feedback: - Responding to workforce transformation: Detective recruitment and Training Recruitment'. MPS, 19th January 2021, Virtual Presentation.
  • Clayman. S, Tong. S & O'Neil. M (2019) ‘Direct Entry Detective: Independent Evaluation' NPCC Investigator Resilience Learning Event, 25th November 2019, College of Policing Ryton.
  • Tong. S & O'Neill. M (2019) ‘Interim feedback - Responding to workforce transformation: Detective recruitment and training Recruitment', NPCC, Retention and Wellbeing of Investigator's working group Thursday 12th September 2019, Croydon, London.
  • Tong. S (2019) ‘Embedding Research in Policing, invitation from the Metropolitan Police Southern Area Evidence-based Policing lead to deliver a presentation on embedding research in policing to a delegation led by the Head of Strategy, Innovation and Research from the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice, 16.07.19 Charing Cross station.
  • Tong, S (2019) ‘Brexit and the future of European Policing: Views of police professionals and the changing context of European Policing." Counter Terrorism Policing in a Diverse and Changing World – Leadership event Kent Police, 6th February 2019.
  • Hadfield. A & Tong. S (2018) ‘Delivering a Brexit Border: Policing, Security, Freight and Customs', Palace of Westminster, Committee Room 6, hosted by Helen Whately, M.P. for Mid-Kent and Faversham, November 13th 2018.
  • Mozova. K & Tong, S (2017) Public fear of terrorism and counter-terrorism awareness, Tuesday 14th November, New Scotland Yard, London, Metropolitan Black Police Association.
  • Tong, S (2016) ‘Learning from Mistakes? Policing Under Siege:  An examination of high profile criticisms of policing and potential responses'. Thursday 21st July, New Scotland Yard, London, Metropolitan Black Police Association.
  • Tong, S (2013) ‘Privatisation of Agencies in the Public Sector,' the London Practitioner Forum, London Metropolitan University, Thursday January 10th 2013
  • Tong, S (2013) ‘Evolving partnership and collaboration', for the College of Policing conference ‘Growing Police and Academic Partnerships', November 28th 2013, Bramshill, Hampshire.
  • Tong, S (2011) ‘The Detective Past and Present: An examination of an evolving profession' presentations at the invitation of the Police Federation, Detective Forum (December 2011)

Leadership and management

Head of School Law, Social & Behaviorial Sciences

Social media

LinkedIn