Dr Christina Butler


I am Associate Professor and senior member of the Department of Management (DoM) in the Faculty of Business & Social Sciences (FBSS) having worked at Kingston University since 2001. I conduct research with an international network of world leading scholars focused on global teams specifically and global work more generally. My research leadership is demonstrated by regular contributions to the wider research community at leading international conferences and as a journal editorial board editor and member and internally through long-standing contributions to PhD supervision, research groups and seminar series. Currently I complement my research profile with leadership in the domain in my role as Research Hub Lead (Future of Work and New Ways of Working (FoW)).

At present, I lead the Inclusive Curriculum Framework workstream in KBS. Previously I led on initiatives in DoM in the domain of Teaching and Learning as evidenced by my SF HEA status and committee involvement. The modules which I lead at postgraduate level focus on different aspects of globalisation to encourage awareness of and preparedness for the world of work in the 21st century. Together these experiences enable me to bring research-led learning into the classroom through innovative curriculum development, such as my Global Immersion module on our MBA, and to embed strategic initiatives across my responsibilities.

I am currently looking to supervise a PhD student on the following research project: The emotional wellbeing of global virtual teams. Please contact me if you are interested in applying.

Academic responsibilities

Associate Professor


  • PhD Organisational Behaviour (London Business School, UK)
  • MBA International Business (Ivey Business School, Canada)
  • BA (Hons) Economics & Russian Language (University of Toronto, Canada)
  • PGCertHE (Kingston University, UK)
  • Academic Member, Chartered Institute Personnel Development (CIPD), UK
  • Senior Fellow, Advance HE, UK
  • Certified Management & Business Educator (CMBE), Chartered Association of Business Schools, UK

Teaching and learning

I have been a Faculty member at Kingston University for 20 years. I have acquired significant teaching experiences across all levels and varied programmes 

I acted as DoM Learning and Teaching Lead (2014-2017) owing to my extensive experience of module leadership and teaching across levels, programmes, and partner institutions in the UK, Greece, India and Russia. To the role of LTA Lead, I brought insights and influence from my involvement in Routledge's The Entrepreneurial University book project. External exposure to this strategic imperative  was critical as FBL moved towards AACSB recognition and the 2016 launch of UG programmes based on a new experiential and entrepreneurial pedagogy. 

I also have experience disseminating my experiences of embedding employability and entrepreneurship in my final year undergraduate modules (250 student class). At the 2015 Higher Education Entrepreneurship Group Annual Conference, following my presentation, there was a lively debate around the challenges of constructive alignment in large group teaching led to a consensus that there is a great deal of scope to use constructive alignment more widely across the curriculum especially in conjunction with smaller teaching groups. In recognition of my engagement with this strategic imperative, I was shortlisted for a KU Talent Individual Innovation Award.

I have led on bringing module content up to contemporary research-led international standards drawing on my experience of top business schools (i.e., LBS, IMD, Ivey, Stockholm School of Economics) together with my own research expertise on cross-cultural management and teams. One of the essential components of this process has been to balance research-led teaching with practice-informed teaching. After becoming International HRM module leader, I modernized content with cutting edge research on global leadership (e.g., Zander, Mockaitis & Butler, 2012). Positive student feedback (e.g., mid-module reviews) encouraged me to continue to develop my L&T practice in this way. Together with other experiences, this initiative culminated in my recognition as a Senior Fellow of the HEA in 2014 (UK PSF 3).

I continue to explicitly embed equality, diversity and inclusion (EDI) and sustainability into LTA strategies. Previously my final year undergraduate students were exposed to sessions on global leadership competencies and women in leadership and were assessed on their reflections of their readiness to support such initiatives organisations. My postgraduate students grapple with the complexities of leading diverse global teams. These positive research-led experiences enabled me to lead on the development of a new "Global Immersion" elective module on the MBA programme. Currently I act as KBS Inclusive Curriculum Workstream Lead. I work with a small team of advocate colleagues to facilitate whole school engagement and learning in this area. 

I mentor a diverse range of colleagues (e.g., in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, employment status) including formal mentoring of new staff members, module leadership mentoring for new staff, and teaching mentoring for Master's/PhD/HPL colleagues. Each experience le me to new and clearer personal reflections on L&T practice at KU and beyond and especially of the benefits of experiential and problem-based learning.

Qualifications and expertise

  • Certified Management & Business Educator, Chartered Association of Business Schools (CABS, 2021)
  • Senior Fellow, Advance HE (formerly HEA) (Kingston University, 2014)
  • Academic Member, Chartered Institute of Personnel Development (CIPD, 2011)
  • Postgraduate Certificate in Teaching and Learning (Kingston University, 2005)

Postgraduate courses taught


My research interests focus on aspects of global work.  I aim to create impact in the areas of team, talent and career development and management.

I have developed a number of intersecting international research collaborations, the longest-standing of which is with Zander (Uppsala). Six years ago she invited me to found the sponsored Leveraging Culture in Teams international network. Five journal articles have since been published. Among other collaborations, in 2013, I began a new project on the conflicting priorities of individuals working in multiple investment banking teams with colleagues at Aalto and Turku Universities. Recently I began a new project with Mockaitis (Maynooth) addressing remote working and well-being with a special emphasis on disruptions such as that caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. 

In 2014, as a member of a sub-group of the Leveraging Culture in Teams network, I was shortlisted for the Swedish Annual HRM Researcher/Research Group of the Year Award.  One of the key criteria for this award is practitioner impact. The core output underpinning this nomination is the Journal of World Business (4) article "Leading Global Teams", co-authored with Zander (Uppsala) and Mockaitis (Monash). 

Currently I am DoS for four PhD students. I have also successfully supervised two PhD students to completion. Thesis topics centred on aspects of culture and/or leadership. David Babarinde, who was awarded a Faculty studentship is investigating power and leadership in Nigerian Higher Education. Other students are working in the areas of global mindset, leader development and challenges of emerging economy franchisors.

My work has been directly funded by the Norwegian Research Council and the Finnish Foundation for Economic Education. It has also benefited indirectly from financial support provided by the Swedish Council for Working Life (Leveraging Culture in Teams network).

Qualifications and expertise

  • Leadership of global virtual teams
  • Well-being in global virtual teams
  • Team-based global organising
  • Language and emotional influences on global work
  • Development of global mindsets
  • Preparing young graduates for the demands of global work
  • Remote working and well-being

Areas of specialism

  • Cross-cultural Management
  • International HRM
  • Organisational Behaviour

Scholarly affiliations

  • Academy of Management (AoM)
  • Academy of International Business (AIB)
  • European International Business Association (EIBA)
  • British Academy of Management (BAM)
  • Groupe d'Etudes Management et Langage (GEM & L)

Research student supervision

Main supervision

Other supervision


Number of items: 49.


Lauring, Jakob, Butler, Christina, Paunova, Minna, Zander, Lena and Uman, Timur (2021) Openness towards language differences and cultural differences in multicultural teams : how do they interact? European Journal of International Management, ISSN (print) 1751-6757 (In Press)

Rodrigues, Ricardo, Butler, Christina L. and Guest, David (2020) Evaluating the employability paradox : when does organizational investment in human capital pay off? International Journal of Human Resource Management, 31(9), pp. 1134-1156. ISSN (print) 0958-5192

Rodrigues, Ricardo, Butler, Christina L. and Guest, David (2019) Antecedents of protean and boundaryless career orientations : the role of core self-evaluations, perceived employability and social capital. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 110(Part A), pp. 1-11. ISSN (print) 0001-8791

Butler, Christina L., Minbaeva, Dana, Makela, Kristiina, Maloney, Mary M., Nardon, Luciara, Paunova, Minna and Zimmerman, Angelika (2018) Towards a strategic understanding of global teams and their HR implications : an expert dialogue. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(14), pp. 2209-2229. ISSN (print) 0958-5192

Daskalaki, Maria, Butler, Christina and Petrovic, Jelena (2016) Somewhere in-between : narratives of place, identity and translocal work. Journal of Management Inquiry, 25(2), pp. 184-198. ISSN (print) 1056-4926

Soane, Emma, Butler, Christina and Stanton, Emma (2015) Followers’ personality, transformational leadership and performance. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 5(1), pp. 65-78. ISSN (online) 2042-678X

Newman, Alexander and Butler, Christina (2014) The influence of follower cultural orientation on attitudinal responses towards transformational leadership: evidence from the Chinese hospitality industry. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(7), pp. 1024-1045. ISSN (print) 0958-5192

Jonsen, Karsten, Butler, Christina L., Mäkelä, Kristiina, Piekkari, Rebecca, Drogendijk, Rian, Lauring, Jakob, Lervik, Jon E., Pahlberg, Cecilia, Vodosek, Markus and Zander, Lena (2013) Processes of international collaboration in management research: a reflexive, autoethnographic approach. Journal of Management Inquiry, 22(4), pp. 394-413. ISSN (print) 1056-4926

Zander, Lena, Mockaitis, Audra I. and Butler, Christina (2012) Leading global teams. Journal of World Business, 47(4), pp. 592-603. ISSN (print) 1090-9516

Butler, Christina L., Zander, Lena, Mockaitis, Audra and Sutton, Ciara (2012) The global leader as boundary spanner, bridge maker, and blender. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5(2), pp. 240-243. ISSN (online) 1754-9434

Juanchich, Marie, Sirota, Miroslav and Butler, Christina Lea (2012) The perceived functions of linguistic risk quantifiers and their effect on risk, negativity perception and decision making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 118(1), pp. 72-81. ISSN (print) 0749-5978

Zander, Lena and Butler, Christina L. (2010) Leadership modes: success strategies for multicultural teams. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 26(3), pp. 258-267. ISSN (print) 0956-5221

Butler, Christina and Zander, Lena (2008) The business of teaching and learning through multicultural teams. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 19(2), pp. 192-218. ISSN (print) 0897-5930

Bidualt, Francis, Despres, Charles and Butler, Christina (1998) The drivers of cooperation between buyers and suppliers for product innovation. Research Policy, 26(7-8), pp. 719-723. ISSN (print) 0048-7333

Book Section

Mäkela, Kristiina, Lauring, Jakob, Butler, Christina L., Lee, Hyun-Jung, Lüecke, Gundual, Miska, Christof, Pahlberg, Cecilia, Stahl, Günter K. and (2020) Meeting the challenges of globalization in order to make a difference : implications for teams and team leadership. In: Zander, Lena, (ed.) Research handbook of global leadership : making a difference. Cheltenham, U.K. : Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. pp. 91-107. ISBN 9781782545347

Butler, Christina L., Sutton, Ciara, Mockaitis, Audra I. and Zander, Lena (2020) The new millennial global leaders : what a difference a generation makes! In: Zander, Lena, (ed.) Research handbook of global leadership : making a difference. Cheltenham, U.K. : Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. pp. 141-163. ISBN 9781782545347

Butler, Christina and Mador, Martha (2015) Kingston University London: using entrepreneurship programs to attract talent and to enhance educational impact. In: Foss, Lene and Gibson, David V., (eds.) The entrepreneurial university: context and institutional change. London, U.K. : Routledge. pp. 90-112. (Routledge Studies in Innovation, Organization and Technology, (37)) ISBN 9781138830776

Zander, Lena, Butler, Christina L., Mockaitis, Audra I., Herbert, Kendall, Lauring, Jakob, Makela, Kristiina, Paunova, Minna, Umans, Timurs and Zettinig, Peter (2015) Team-based global organizations : the future of global organizing. In: van Tulder, Rob , Verbeke, Alain and Drogendijk, Rian, (eds.) The future of global organizing. Bingley, U.K. : Emerald Group Publishing Limited. pp. 227-244. (Progress in international business research, (10)) ISSN (print) 1745-8862 ISBN 9781785604232

Zander, Lena, Butler, Christina L., Mockaitis, Audra I., Herbert, Kendall, Lauring, Jakob, Mäkelä, Kristiina, Paunova, Minna, Umans, Timurs and Zettinig, Peter (2015) Team-based global organizations: the future of global organizing. In: Van Tulder, Rob , Verbeke, Alain and Drogendijk, Rian, (eds.) The future of global organizing. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. pp. 227-243. (Progress in International Business Research, 10) ISSN (print) 1745-8862 ISBN 9781785604232

Butler, Christina L. and Earley, P. Christopher (2001) Multinational groups and the structuration of organizational culture: a sociological perspective. In: Cooper, Cary L. , Cartwright, Sue and Earley, P. Christopher, (eds.) The international handbook of organizational culture and climate. Chichester, U.K. : John Wiley & Sons. pp. 53-84. ISBN 9780471491262

Conference or Workshop Item

Butler, Christina (2021) COVID-19 pandemic disruptions to working lives : examining job satisfaction, stress and burnout across life stages. In: British Academy of Management (BAM) Conference 2021 : Recovering from Covid: Responsible Management and Reshaping the Economy; 31 Aug – 03 Sep 2021, Held online. (In Press)

Butler, Christina (2021) New ways of working and the illusion of flexibility : the impact of temporal schemata, role conflict and overload of global virtual team members. In: British Academy of Management (BAM) Conference 2021 : Recovering from Covid: Responsible Management and Reshaping the Economy; 31 Aug – 03 Sep 2021, Held online. (In Press)

Babarinde, David, Butler, Christina and Hannon, Enda (2018) Labour conflict resolution in Nigerian universities: a play in search of casts. In: 9th Annual Faculty of Business Research Conference: Contemporary Issues in Business; 04 June 2018, Kingston upon Thames, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Einola, Katja Maria, Zettinig, Peter, Mäkelä, Kristiina, Kauppila, Olli-Pekka and Butler, Christina Lea (2016) Multiple team membership – what drives employee commitment to competing demands? In: INGRoup Conference; 14-16 Jul 2016, Helsinki, Finland. (Unpublished)

Lauring, Jakob, Paunova, Minna and Butler, Christina (2015) Openness to language and value diversity fosters multicultural team creativity and performance. In: 2015 Academy of Management (AOM) Annual Meeting: Opening Governance; 7-11 Aug 2015, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. (Unpublished)

Butler, Christina (2015) Exploring learning through doing : developing entrepreneurial leadership in final year undergraduates. In: HEEG Annual Conference 2015; 11 - 12 Jun 2015, Southampton, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Butler, Christina (2015) New challenges for leading teams in global team-based organizations. In: 2015 Academy of Management (AOM) Annual Meeting: Opening Governance; 7-11 Aug 2015, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. (Unpublished)

Butler, Christina (2014) Global mobility challenges for HRM. In: Research in Practice Seminar Series: The Future of HR and Internationalisation; 11 Sep 2014, Kingston upon Thames, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Zander, Lena and Butler, Christina (2014) Globalisation and the diminishing influence of national culture on company culture. In: European Academy of Management (EURAM) Annual Conference 2014: Waves and Winds of Strategic Leadership for Sustainable Competitiveness; 4-7 Jun 2014, Valencia, Spain. (Unpublished)

Butler, Christina (2014) Implications of social capital and status cues on global team leader roles. In: 40th European International Business Academy (EIBA) Annual Conference: The Future of Global Organizing; 11-13 Dec 2014, Uppsala, Sweden. (Unpublished)

Butler, Christina and Chongarova, Irina (2014) Leading global teams. In: Kingston Business School Business Breakfast: Leading Global Teams; 11 Nov 2014, Kingston upon Thames, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Lauring, Jakob, Paunova, Minna, Umans, Timurs, Butler, Christina and Zander, Lena (2014) Openness to language and value diversity fosters multicultural team creativity and performance. In: 40th European International Business Academy (EIBA) Annual Conference: The Future of Global Organizing; 11-13 Dec 2014, Uppsala, Sweden. (Unpublished)

Butler, Christina, Juanchich, Marie and Sirota, Miroslav (2011) Uncertain of tactful? Effect of risk quantifiers' interpretation on risk perception and decision making. In: 16th EASP General Meeting; 12 - 16 July 2011, Stockholm, Sweden. (Unpublished)

Daskalaki, Maria, Butler, Christina and Petrovic, Jelena (2011) Narrating cosmopolis: 'in another place, not here'. In: The 2nd Annual Faculty of Business and Law Conference: Emerging Issues in Business and Law; 10 May 2011, Kingston upon Thames, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Juanchich, Marie, Sirota, Miroslav and Butler, Christina (2011) Functions of linguistic risk quantifiers and related risk perception. In: Experimental Psychology Society Meeting; 13 - 15 Apr 2011, Oxford, U.K.. (Unpublished)

Butler, Christina, Hatzidimitriadou, Eleni and Psoinos, Maria (2010) Managing equality and diversity in health care: the case of ethnic monitoring at St George's NHS trust. In: EAWOP Small Group Meeting - Managing diversity in organisations; 23-24 Sep 2010, Birmigham, U.K..

Mahieu, Christian, Nilles, Jean-Jacques, Butler, Christina, Gourlay, Stephen and Narendran, Sunitha (2010) Training for ethical discernment as a company policy : the eval'ethic experience. In: 9th Annual Colloquium of The European Academy of Business in Society (EABIS): Corporate Responsibility and Emerging Markets; 20-21 Sep 2010, St.Petersburg, Russia. (Unpublished)

Butler, Christina Lea (2010) The challenge of the 'in-between' multinational team: is a bicultural leader the answer? In: 2010 Academy of Management Annual Meeting: Dare to care: passion and compassion in management practice and research; 06 - 10 Aug 2010, Montreal, Canada.

Butler, Christina and Mahadeva, Meera (2010) At the crossroads of visible and invisible characteristics: signposts to virtue in multinational teams. In: Conference of the International Network of Business and Management Journals (INBAM): Creativity and Innovation in an International Context; 01 - 04 Jun 2010, Valencia, Spain.

Butler, Christina (2010) The interaction of surface- and deep-level national diversity: the case of global teams. In: European Academy of Management (EURAM) Annual Conference 2010: Back to the future; 19-22 May 2010, Rome, Italy.

Butler, Christina, Soane, Emma and Stanton, Emma (2009) All at sea: team conflict during the Clipper round the World Sailing Race 2005-2006. In: British Academy of Management (BAM) Conference 2009: The End of the Pier? Competing perspectives on the challenges facing business and management; 15-17 Sep 2009, Brighton, U.K..

Zander, Lena and Butler, Christina (2009) Team leadership models: modeling multicultural team success based on team composition. In: European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management (EIASM) 7th Workshop on International Strategy and Cross Cultural Management; 25-26 Sep 2009, Helsinki, Finland.

Zander, Lena and Butler, Christina (2008) Team leadership models: modelling multicultural team success. In: 22nd Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management (ANZAM) Annual Conference: Managing in the Pacific Century; 2-5 Dec 2008, Auckland, New Zealand.

Butler, Christina (2008) Cross-cultural leadership, teams and faultlines. In: 50th annual meeting of the Academy of International Business "Knowledge development and exchange in international business networks"; 30 June - 3 July 2008, Milan, Italy.

Butler, Christina Lea and Price, Stephen Michael (2006) Local time global change: differences between Kenyan and British perceptions. In: 2006 Academy of Management Annual Meeting : Knowledge, action and the public concern; 11 - 16 Aug 2006, Atlanta, U.S.. (Unpublished)

Butler, Christina Lea (2006) The influence of status cues on collective identity in teams of different national composition. In: 2006 Academy of Management Annual Meeting : Knowledge, action and the public concern; 11 - 16 Aug 2006, Atlanta, U.S.. (Unpublished)

Butler, Christina Lea (2005) Differences between mutlinational & nationally homogeneous groups: the influence of status cues. In: 65th Academy of Marketing Annual Meeting: A New Vision of Management in the 21st Century; 05 - 10 Aug 2005, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.. (Unpublished)

Butler, C. and Price, S. (2004) Kenyan and British perceptions of time: the importance of understanding differences for change programmes. In: British Academy of Management Annual Conference : Management Futures; 30 Aug - 01 Sep 2004, St Andrews, U.K..


Psoinos, Maria, Hatzidimitriadou, Eleni, Butler, Christina and Barn, Ravinder (2011) Ethnic monitoring in healthcare services in the UK as a mechanism to address health disparities: a narrative review. (Other) London : SWan IPI. 35 p. ISBN 9780955832987

This list was generated on Sun Jul 3 07:06:04 2022 BST.

Leadership and management


Currently I lead the Future of Work (FOW) Research Hub. I am developing a programme of events with colleagues for 2021/22. 

In 2015, I initiated (with Rodrigues, now King's College London) a university-wide longitudinal strategic project, underpinned by conversations with the VC's Office, LTEC (formerly CHERP) and Senior Faculty Staff, to understand the career success of Kingston graduates. We supported this initiative with a University-wide preliminary findings workshop for academic and administrative staff. Prof David Guest (King's College London) was guest speaker at this event. An accompanying report was circulated to attendees and other interested University parties. Two papers have already been published from this project with more in the pipeline. 

As Chair of the Kingston Business School Research Seminar Series, I organised 40 lunchtime seminars over six years. Recent annual themes include "Creating Impact" and "Writing for Different Audiences". Sessions were regularly attended by early career researchers and PhD students, among others, providing a forum for mentoring and the dissemination of expertise within KBS. 


I disseminate my experiences of research-led and innovative teaching practices at external and internal events contributing to my own development as a reflective and influential practitioner. At AoM, I shared the challenges of teaching cross-cultural management to internationally diverse students and returned with an idea for using student videos in the classroom. I stimulated a lively debate among University academics by guest presenting at  "research-informed" teaching CPD workshop and gained insights into the very different perceptions held by colleagues. I collaborated on a case teaching workshop attended by 24 permanent and HPL staff. Subsequently, I mentored a colleague by co-teaching using the case method. These experiences build on a history of presenting at T&L events and a publication in the Journal of Teaching in International Business. Currently I act as Inclusive Curriculuum Framework Workstream Lead for KBS. A first programme of activity is being rolled out across KBS during the academic year 2021/22.

In 2014 I was invited to serve on the re-validation panel of University College Cork's Post-graduate Certificate in Management. This opportunity built on prior validation and other QA experiences. I served as an internal member of the validation team for the National School of Government's in-company PG Certificates in HRM and Organisational Learning & Development for the European Commission. Subsequently I sat on the staff/student programme liaison board in Brussels. I complemented these HE experiences by serving as Interview Advisor to A-level students at Ibstock Place School.

I acted as External Examiner at London Business School (2015-2020) where I oversaw all teaching provision offered by the Organisational Behaviour Area Group and held lead responsibility for the institution's Executive MBA. I also acted as External Examiner for the Irish Management Institute's suits of PG Diplomas (2016-2020). From expertise developed as DoM QC Lead, I was able to disseminate good practice (e.g., student feedback). In return I was also disseminate good practice back at Kingston (e.g., membership of exam boards). Earlier I was DeMontfort University External Examiner for HRM UG programmes.

University responsibilities

  • Academic Council (formerly Senate)
  • Future of Work Research Hub Lead (formerly DoM Research Lead)
  • DoM PGR Lead
  • DoM LTA/QC Lead

Public and CIVIC roles

  • Journal of World Business (Elsevier), Editorial Board Member (2015 - present)
  • International Journal of Human Resource Management (Routledge), Editorial Board Member (2020 - present)
  • International Journal of Emerging Markets (Emerald), Senior Editor (Management) (2020 - 2021)
  • London Business School, External Examiner (2015 - 2020)
  • Irish Management Institue, External Examiner (2016 - 2020)