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Dr Lori Snyder

Associate professor


As an Associate Professor in the School of Life Sciences, Pharmacy, and Chemistry at Kingston University, I am involved in educating students from their first year, to MSc programmes, to PhDs. In addition, I am active in outreach activities, including Lab in a Lorry visits, offering work experience to sixth form students, and participating in public engagement events. My research focuses on two main areas: combating antibiotic resistant infections and bacterial genetics and genomics. I have developed, with my research team, novel antimicrobials to stop infant blindness from multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. This work was featured in a Wired article ( and discussed on YouTube ( I also use bacterial genome sequence data to uncover new information about pathogens that drive our laboratory investigations. This work was featured in a YouTube interview (

I began doing genomic analyses and investigating mechanisms of antibiotic resistance during my PhD at Emory University, USA, with Prof. Bill Shafer, where I investigated Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis. Work on these species continued during my post-doctoral research at the University of Oxford. As a post-doctoral fellow at the University of Birmingham, I worked as a bioinformatician with Prof. Mark Pallen and Dr. Nick Loman.

In 2013, I was awarded the W H Pierce Prize from the Society for Applied Microbiology in recognition of my substantial contributions to the science of applied microbiology. I have been twice elected to the Prokaryotic Division committee of the Microbiology Society, where I contribute to the organisation of the Society's large international conference. I serve on the Editorial Board of the journal Microorganisms (MDPI) and the Advisory Board of the journal Microbial Genomics (Microbiology Society). Funding for my research has been awarded by Sparks, the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, the Society for Applied Microbiology, and the Microbiology Society.

Areas of specialism

  • Bacteriology
  • Infectious diseases
  • Microbial genomics
  • Genetics
  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Next generation sequencing
  • Genomics
  • Antimicrobials


  • PhD. in Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Emory University, 2001
  • MA in Biology, The College of William and Mary, 1995
  • BS in Biology, The College of William and Mary, 1993
  • Senior Fellow HEA, 2015

Professional membership

British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Microbiology Society

Society for Applied Microbiology


My research largely focuses on the pathogenic Neisseria species of bacteria: Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis. N. gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea, as well as ophthalmia neonatorum, an infection of the eyes of newborns that can lead to blindness. N. meningitidis causes meningitis and septicaemia, life threatening conditions.

Research in my lab has been addressing the problem of antibiotic resistance in gonorrhoea infections. With the support of the Sparks charity (, we have developed a promising new alternative to antibiotics that can be used to treat ophthalmia neonatorum.

Genomics research in my lab has provided novel insights into the genetic make-up of these bacterial pathogens. These lines of investigation may lead to novel treatment options, vaccine targets, and better understanding of the pathogens and how they cause their respective diseases. We are also investigating related non-pathogenic species, which provide alternative treatment options not yet explored.


Number of items: 52.


Dolange, Victoria, Churchward, Colin P., Christodoulides, Myron and Snyder, Lori A. S. (2018) The growing threat of gonococcal blindness. Antibiotics, 7(3), p. 59. ISSN (online) 2079-6382

Esmaeilishirazifard, E., Usher, L., Trim, C., Denise, H., Sangal, V., Tyson, G.H., Barlow, A., Redway, K.F., Taylor, J.D., Kremyda-Vlachou, M., Loftus, T.D., Lock, M.M.G., Wright, K., Dalby, A., Snyder, L.A.S., Wuster, W., Trim, S. and Moschos, S.A. (2018) Microbial adaptation to venom is common in snakes and spiders. bioRxiv, (Unpublished)

Churchward, Colin P., Calder, Alan and Snyder, Lori A. S. (2018) Mutations in 'Neisseria gonorrhoeae' grown in sub-lethal concentrations of monocaprin do not confer resistance. PLoS One, 13(4), e0195453. ISSN (online) 1932-6203

Spencer-Smith, Russell, Gould, Simon W., Pulijala, Madhuri and Snyder, Lori A. S. (2018) Investigating potential chromosomal rearrangements during laboratory culture of 'Neisseria gonorrhoeae'. Microorganisms, 6(1), p. 10. ISSN (print) 2076-2607

Butt, Ummara, ElShaer, Amr, Snyder, Lori A. S., Al-Kinani, Ali A., Le Gresley, Adam and Alany, Raid G. (2018) Fatty acid based microemulsions to combat ophthalmia neonatorum caused by 'Neisseria gonorrhoeae' and 'Staphylococcus aureus'. Nanomaterials, 8(1), p. 51. ISSN (online) 2079-4991

Churchward, Colin P., Alany, Raid G. and Snyder, Lori A. S. (2018) Alternative antimicrobials : the properties of fatty acids and monoglycerides. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 44(5), pp. 561-570. ISSN (print) 1040-841X

Churchward, Colin P., Alany, Raid G., Kirk, Ruth S., Walker, Anthony J. and Snyder, Lori A. S. (2017) Prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum caused by 'Neisseria gonorrhoea' using a fatty acid-based formulation. mBio, 8(4), e00534-17. ISSN (print) 2161-2129

Elbeyioglu, Firat, Roberts, Sabrina B., Spencer-Smith, Russell, Pulijala, Madhuri, Zelewska, Marta, Nebel, Jean-Christophe and Snyder, Lori AS (2017) Inversion of correia repeat enclosed elements in ' Neisseria gonorrhoeae '. Microbiology, 163(1), pp. 31-36. ISSN (print) 1350-0872

Butt, Ummara, ElShaer, Amr, Snyder, Lori A. S., Chaidemenou, Athina and Alany, Raid G. (2016) Fatty acid microemulsion for the treatment of neonatal conjunctivitis : quantification, characterisation and evaluation of antimicrobial activity. Drug Delivery and Translational Research, 6(6), pp. 722-734. ISSN (print) 2190-393X

Roberts, Sabrina, Spencer-Smith, Russell, Shah, Mahwish, Nebel, Jean-Christophe, Cook, Richard T. and Snyder, Lori A. S. (2016) Correia repeat enclosed elements and non-coding RNAs in the Neisseria species. Microorganisms, 4(3), p. 31. ISSN (online) 2076-2607

Spencer-Smith, Russell, Roberts, Sabrina, Gurung, Neesha and Snyder, Lori AS (2016) DNA uptake sequences in Neisseria gonorrhoeae as intrinsic transcriptional terminators and markers of horizontal gene transfer. Microbial Genomics, 2(8), ISSN (online) 2057-5858

Zelewska, Marta A., Pulijala, Madhuri, Spencer-Smith, Russell, Mahmood, Hiba-Tun-Noor A., Norman, Billie, Churchward, Colin P., Calder, Alan and Snyder, Lori AS (2016) Phase variable DNA repeats in 'Neisseria gonorrhoeae' influence transcription, translation, and protein sequence variation. Microbial Genomics, 2016(2), ISSN (online) 2057-5858

Snyder, Lori AS (2016) Next-generation sequencing techniques. Hospital Healthcare Europe, 2016,

Snyder, Lori A.S. (2015) Finding sunken treasure in the genome sequencing data flood. Microbiologist, 16(2), pp. 10-13. ISSN (print) 1479-2699

Karlyshev, Andrey V, Snyder, Lori A S, McFadden, Johnjoe and Griffin, Ruth (2015) Insight into proteomic investigations of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C strain L91543 from analysis of its genome sequence. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 362(9), ISSN (print) 0378-1097

Bingle, Lewis E. H., Constantinidou, Chrystala, Shaw, Robert K., Islam, Md. Shahidul, Patel, Mala, Snyder, Lori A. S., Lee, David J., Penn, Charles W., Busby, Stephen J. W. and Pallen, Mark J. (2014) Microarray analysis of the Ler regulon in enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic ' Escherichia coli ' strains. PLoS ONE, 9(1), e80160-e80160. ISSN (online) 1932-6203

Snyder, L.A., Loman, N.J., Faraj, L.J., Levi, K., Weinstock, J., Boswell, T.C., Pallen, M.J. and Ala’Aldeen, D.A. (2013) Epidemiological investigation of ' Pseudomonas aeruginosa ' isolates from a six-year-long hospital outbreak using high-throughput whole genome sequencing. Eurosurveillance, 18(42), ISSN (print) 1025-496X

Spencer-Smith, Russell, Varkey, Eldho, Fielder, Mark and Snyder, Lori (2012) Sequence features contributing to chromosomal rearrangements in 'Neisseria gonorrhoeae'. PLOS One, 7(9), e46023. ISSN (online) 1932-6203

Snyder, Lori (2011) Careers : a career in microbial genomics - home and away. Microbiologist, 12(1), pp. 44-45. ISSN (print) 1479-2699

Snyder, LAS, Loman, NJ, Linton, JD, Langdon, RR, Weinstock, GM, Wren, BW and Pallen, MJ (2010) Simple sequence repeats in Helicobacter canadensis and their role in phase variable expression and C-terminal sequence switching. BMC Genomics, 11(67), ISSN (print) 1471-2164

Loman, N. J., Snyder, L.A.S., Linton, J. D., Langdon, R., Lawson, A. J., Weinstock, G. M., Wren, B. W. and Pallen, M. J. (2009) Genome sequence of the emerging pathogen Helicobacter canadensis. Journal of Bacteriology, 191(17), pp. 5566-5567. ISSN (print) 0021-9193

Woo, Patrick C. Y., Lau, Susanna K. P., Tse, Herman, Teng, Jade L. L., Curreem, Shirly O. T., Tsang, Alan K. L., Fan, Rachel Y. Y., Wong, Gilman K. M., Huang, Yi, Loman, Nicholas J., Snyder, Lori A. S., Cai, James J., Huang, Jian-Dong, Mak, William, Pallen, Mark J., Lok, Si and Yuen, Kwok-Yung (2009) The complete genome and proteome of Laribacter hongkongensis reveal potential mechanisms for adaptations to different temperatures and habitats. PLoS Genetics, 5(3), e1000416. ISSN (print) 1553-7390

Snyder, Lori A.S., Cole, Jeff A. and Pallen, Mark J. (2009) Comparative analysis of two 'Neisseria gonorrhoeae' genome sequences reveals evidence of mobilization of Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements and their role in regulation. BMC Genomics, 10(70), ISSN (online) 1471-2164

Snyder, Lori A. S., Loman, Nicholas J., Futterer, Klaus and Pallen, Mark J. (2009) Bacterial flagellar diversity and evolution: seek simplicity and distrust it? Trends in Microbiology, 17(1), pp. 1-5. ISSN (print) 0966-842X

Snyder, Lori A. S., Loman, Nick, Pallen, Mark J. and Penn, Charles W (2009) Next-generation sequencing : the promise and perils of charting the great microbial unknown. Microbial Ecology, 57(1), pp. 1-3. ISSN (print) 0095-3628

Chaudhuri, Roy R., Loman, Nicholas J., Snyder, Lori A. S., Bailey, Christopher M., Stekel, Dov J. and Pallen, Mark J. (2008) xBASE2: a comprehensive resource for comparative bacterial genomics. Nucleic Acids Research, 36, D543-D546. ISSN (print) 0305-1048

Snyder, Lori A. S., McGowan, Simon, Rogers, Matthew, Duro, Eris, O'Farrell, Ewan and Saunders, Nigel J. (2007) The repertoire of minimal mobile elements in the Neisseria species and evidence that these are involved in horizontal gene transfer in other bacteria. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 24(12), pp. 2802-2815. ISSN (print) 0737-4038

Tett, Adrian, Spiers, Andrew J., Crossman, Lisa C., Ager, Duane, Ciric, Lena, Dow, J. Maxwell, Fry, John C., Harris, David, Lilley, Andrew, Oliver, Anna, Parkhill, Julian, Quail, Michael A., Rainey, Paul B., Saunders, Nigel J., Seeger, Kathy, Snyder, Lori A. S., Squares, Rob, Thomas, Christopher M., Turner, Sarah L., Zhang, Xue-Xian, Field, Dawn and Bailey, Mark J. (2007) Sequence-based analysis of pQBR103; a representative of a unique, transfer-proficient mega plasmid resident in the microbial community of sugar beet. The ISME Journal, 1(4), pp. 331-340. ISSN (print) 1751-7362

Bentley, Stephen D., Vernikos, George S., Snyder, Lori A.S., Churcher, Carol, Arrowsmith, Claire, Chillingworth, Tracey, Cronin, Ann, Davis, Paul H., Holroyd, Nancy E., Jagels, Kay, Maddison, Mark, Moule, Sharon, Rabbinowitsch, Ester, Sharp, Sarah, Unwin, Louise, Whitehead, Sally, Quail, Michael A., Achtman, Mark, Barrell, Bart, Saunders, Nigel J. and Parkhill, Julian (2007) Meningococcal genetic variation mechanisms viewed through comparative analysis of Serogroup C Strain FAM18. PLoS Genetics, 3(2), e23. ISSN (print) 1553-7390

Whitehead, Rebekah N., Overton, Tim W., Snyder, Lori A.S., McGowan, Simon J., Smith, Harry, Cole, Jeff A. and Saunders, Nigel J. (2007) The small FNR regulon of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: comparison with the larger Escherichia coli FNR regulon and interaction with the NarQ-NarP regulon. BMC Genomics, 8(35), ISSN (online) 1471-2164

Overton, Tim W., Whitehead, Rebekah, Li, Ying, Snyder, Lori A. S., Saunders, Nigel J., Smith, Harry and Cole, Jeff A. (2006) Coordinated regulation of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae-truncated denitrification pathway by the nitric oxide-sensitive repressor, NsrR, and nitrite-insensitive NarQ-NarP. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 281(44), pp. 33115-33126. ISSN (print) 0021-9258

Gunsekere, Ishara C., Kahler, Charlene M., Powell, David R., Snyder, Lori A. S., Saunders, Nigel J., Rood, Julian I. and Davies, John K. (2006) Comparison of the RpoH-dependent regulon and general stress response in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Journal of Bacteriology, 188(13), pp. 4769-4776. ISSN (print) 0021-9193

Snyder, Lori AS and Saunders, Nigel J. (2006) The majority of genes in the pathogenic Neisseria species are present in non-pathogenic Neisseria lactamica, including those designated as 'virulence genes'. BMC Genomics, 7(128), ISSN (online) 1471-2164

Gunesekere, Ishara C., Kahler, Charlene M., Ryan, Catherine S., Snyder, Lori A. S., Saunders, Nigel J., Rood, Julian I. and Davies, John K. (2006) Ecf, an alternative sigma factor from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, controls expression of msrAB, which encodes methionine sulfoxide reductase. Journal of Bacteriology, 188(10), pp. 3463-3469. ISSN (print) 0021-9193

Snyder, Lori A. S., Jarvis, Stephen A. and Saunders, Nigel J. (2005) Complete and variant forms of the 'gonococcal genetic island' in Neisseria meningitidis. Microbiology, 151(12), pp. 4005-4013. ISSN (print) 1350-0872

Snyder, Lori A.S., Davies, John K., Ryan, Catherine S. and Saunders, Nigel J. (2005) Comparative overview of the genomic and genetic differences between the pathogenic Neisseria strains and species. Plasmid, 54(3), pp. 191-218. ISSN (print) 0147-619X

Herbert, Mark A, Beveridge, Catriona J E, McCormick, David, Aten, Emmelien, Jones, Nicola, Snyder, Lori A S and Saunders, Nigel J (2005) Genetic islands of Streptococcus agalactiae strains NEM316 and 2603VR and their presence in other Group B Streptococcal strains. BMC Microbiology, 5(31), pp. 1-11. ISSN (online) 1471-2180

Jordan, Philip W, Snyder, Lori A S and Saunders, Nigel J (2005) Strain-specific differences in Neisseria gonorrhoeae associated with the phase variable gene repertoire. BMC Microbiology, 5(21), pp. 1-12. ISSN (online) 1471-2180

Snyder, Lori A S, Davies, John K and Saunders, Nigel J (2004) Microarray genomotyping of key experimental strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae reveals gene complement diversity and five new neisserial genes associated with Minimal Mobile Elements. BMC Genomics, 5(23), pp. 1-12. ISSN (online) 1471-2164

Jordan, Philip, Snyder, Lori A S and Saunders, Nigel J (2003) Diversity in coding tandem repeats in related Neisseria spp. BMC Microbiology, 3(23), pp. 1-15. ISSN (online) 1471-2180

Jerse, Ann E., Sharma, Nirmala D., Simms, Amy N., Crow, Emily T., Snyder, Lori A. and Shafer, William M. (2003) A gonococcal efflux pump system enhances bacterial survival in a female mouse model of genital tract infection. Infection and Immunity, 71(10), pp. 5576-5582. ISSN (print) 0019-9567

Snyder, Lori A. S., Shafer, William M. and Saunders, Nigel J. (2003) Divergence and transcriptional analysis of the division cell wall (dcw) gene cluster in Neisseria spp. Molecular Microbiology, 47(2), pp. 431-442. ISSN (print) 0950-382X

Salaun, Laurence, Snyder, Lori A.S. and Saunders, Nigel J. (2003) Adaptation by phase variation in pathogenic bacteria. Advances in Applied Microbiology, 52, pp. 263-301. ISSN (print) 0065-2164

Saunders, Nigel J. and Snyder, Lori A. S. (2002) The minimal mobile element. Microbiology, 148(12), pp. 3756-3760. ISSN (print) 1350-0872

Snyder, Lori A. S., Butcher, Sarah A. and Saunders, Nigel J. (2001) Comparative whole-genome analyses reveal over 100 putative phase-variable genes in the pathogenic Neisseria spp. Microbiology, 147(8), pp. 2321-2332. ISSN (print) 1350-0872

Snyder, Lori A. S., Saunders, Nigel J. and Shafer, William M. (2001) A putatively phase variable gene (dca) required for natural competence in Neisseria gonorrhoeae but not Neisseria meningitidis is located within the division cell wall (dcw) gene cluster. Journal of Bacteriology, 183(4), pp. 1233-1241. ISSN (print) 0021-9193

Hagman, Kayla E., Lucas, Claressa E., Balthazar, Jacqueline T., Snyder, Lori, Nilles, Matthew, Judd, Ralph C. and Shafer, William M. (1997) The MtrD protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a member of the resistance/nodulation/division protein family constituting part of an efflux system. Microbiology, 143(7), pp. 2117-2125. ISSN (print) 1350-0872

Book Section

Churchward, Colin P. and Snyder, Lori A. S. (2019) In vitro models of eye infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In: Christodoulides, Myron, (ed.) Neisseria gonorrhoeae : methods and protocols. New York, NY : Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 363-376. (Methods in molecular biology) ISSN (print) 1064-3745 ISBN 9781493994953

Snyder, Lori A S, Snudden, Graham, Haan, Nick and Saunders, Nigel J. (2007) Comparative genomics: the nature of CGH analysis and data interpretation. In: Falciani, Francesco, (ed.) Microarray technology through applications. Abingdon, U.K. : Taylor & Francis. pp. 269-284. ISBN 9780415378536

Snyder, Lori A.S., Jordan, Philip W. and Saunders, Nigel J. (2007) Neisseria: a postgenomic view. In: Pullen, Mark J. , Nelson, Karen E. and Preston, Gail M., (eds.) Bacterial pathogenomics. Washington, U.S.A. : ASM Press. pp. 90-119. ISBN 9781555814519

Saunders, Nigel J. and Snyder, Lori A. S. (2005) The neisserial genomes: what they reveal about the diversity and behavior of these species. In: Little, Peter F. R., (ed.) Encyclopedia of genetics, genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics. Wiley InterScience.

Conference or Workshop Item

Butt, U., Elshaer, A., Alany, R. and Snyder, L. (2014) Using fatty acids to combat blindness in newborns caused by gonorrhoea infection: analytical method development and validation. In: American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) Annual Meeting and Exposition; 02-06 Nov 2014, San Diego, U.S.. (Unpublished)

This list was generated on Fri Dec 6 04:59:16 2019 GMT.
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